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Sulfur is one of the known chemical elements in Mendeleev's table. Sulfur or sulfur has 16 electrons. In the late 1770s, Antoine Lavaudieu was able to convince scientific assemblies that sulfur is an element rather than a compound. Sulfur is used to produce agricultural fertilizers and sulfuric acid.


The name of matter (Persian): sulfur

Name of matter (English): Sulfur

Brand (Persian): Sulfur

Brand (English): Sulfur

Other names: sulfur flower, brimstone, sulfur dust

This element is in the third stage of the Mendeleev table and in the sixth group, the oxygen group. Prior to that, the phosphorus after that, chlorine, was supplemented with oxygen and below its selenium. The sulfur element is naturally occurring in nature and pure, or in the form of sulfide and sulfate compounds along with other metallic and non-metallic elements. The cold and pure sulfur is yellow but often changes due to high temperatures or impurities. According to the crystallization system, this type of sulfur is Sulphuric alpha (rhombic or octahedral), beta sulfur (monoclinic or prismatic), gamma sulfate (plastic) and formic sulfur (colloidal). The appearance of this navel is pale yellow, which is very light and soft. This element has a specific smell when combined with hydrogen, which is similar to the odor of rotten eggs. Sulfur burns with a burning blue flame and a strange smell (see the opposite image). Sulfur is not soluble in water but dissolved in carbon disulfide (sulfur-carbon). The typical oxidation states of this element are 2, 2+, 4+, and 6+, which is 2- and 2+ decreasing and tend to reach 6+ which is more stable and 4+ and 6+ states do not follow the eight-point rule (refer to the sulfur structure). Sulfur has many forms in all liquid, solid, and gas states, the relationship between them is not yet fully understood. The crystalline sulfur is shown as a sulfur ring of S8. Polymer sulfur nitride has metallic properties, while it does not have any metal atoms (like metal). It also has unusual optical and electrical properties. Non-crystalline sulfur or plastic is produced by the rapid cooling of sulfur crystals. Studies on X-rays show that an un-crystalline and non-crystalline species may have 8 atoms in each star-shaped torso structure. Sulfur can be obtained in two crystalline forms: orthorhombic (octopus sulfur) or mono-clay crystal, which is more stable at normal temperatures. The sulfur element, along with other elements, is found in various minerals, most notably pyrite, marcasite, pyrolytic, chalcopyrite, chalcocite, covellite, bornite, sphalerite, anhydrite, gypsum, and the like. Sulfur is more alto-pro than any other known compound. It has more than 30 well-known altogether. Sulfur In addition to the popular S8 form, the ring has other forms, such as the S7, which is slightly yellow. In addition, sulfur contains 25 known isotopes. Sulfur, the Latin name Sulfur, has been known since ancient times. This element is called Brimstone in the Bible's five verses. Homer also listed insecticide sulfur in the 9th century BC. In the year 424 BC, the Boeotians tribe destroyed the city walls by burning a mixture of charcoal and sulfur. At the same time, in the 12th century China, a gun, a mixture of potassium nitrate KNO3 carbon and sulfur, was discovered. Initial alchemists for sulfur considered the triangle symbol above the line. These alchemists knew from experience that the mercury element could be combined with sulfur. The oath or the word originally meant sulfur. In the past, one of the final methods for proving the accusations was to feed sulfur water. If the accused persists after eating sulfur or the same oath, then the verdict was vindicated by him. The so-called oath that the person's emphasis on the veracity of his words is essentially the same. In the late 1770s, Antoine Lavaudieu was able to convince scientific assemblies that sulfur is an element rather than a compound.

In the production of sulfuric acid, agricultural fertilizer, rubber industry, pesticides and many sulfate salts


Physical and chemical properties:

Standard atomic weight 32.065 (5) gmol-1

Electron configuration [No] 3s2 3p4

Electrons per shell 2, 8, 6 (Image)

Phase solid

Density (near r.t.) (Alpha) 2.07 gcm-3

Density (near r.t.) (Beta) 1.96 gcm-3

Density (near r.t.) (Gamma) 1.92 gcm-3

Liquid density at m.p. 1.819 gcm-3

Melting point 388.36 K 115.21 C 239.38 F

Boiling point 717.8 K 444.6 C 832.3 F

Critical point 1314 K, 20.7 MPa

Heat of fusion (mono) 1.727 kJ mol -1

Heat of vaporization (mono) 45 kJmol-1

Specific heat capacity (25 C) 22.75 Jmol-1K-1

Vapor pressure P / P 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k at T / K 375 408 449 508 591 717

Oxidation states 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2 (strongly acidic oxide)

Electronegativity 2.58 (Pauling scale)

Ionization energies (more) 1: 999.6 kJmol-1 2nd: 2252 kJmol-1 3rd: 3357 kJmol-1

Covalent radius 1053 pm

Van der Waals radius 180 pm

Electrical resistivity (20 C) (amorphous) 21015

Thermal conductivity (300 K) (amorphous) 0.205 Wm-1K-1

Bulk modules 7.7 GPa / Mohs hardness 2.0

Production methods:

Depending on the type of deposits, sulfur can be obtained both in open and underground ways. Sulfur extraction and ore extraction methods differ from other minerals and have their own method and technology. In natural sulfur deposits (free), traditional mining methods are used to extract this mineral. Extraction of sulfur from more salt domes is carried out using the Frasch Fraction method. In this method, hot water is injected into the sulfur section through the well, and then the sulfur is driven out of the liquid by the liquid. In the process of sulfur processing, using different methods of degradation, they are subjected to mineralization. These methods include: Fractionation with flotation and then refining of sulfur melting by autoclave, before or after partial degradation, and then refining the melting and refining without partial perforation, and smoothing the distillation of mineral gems in their iron vessels, and turning them into a condensed room Outside of the furnace and supplying sulfur to the condensed chamber (used in Japan), sulfur can be obtained from hydrogen sulfide in the Claus process in hydrodesulfurization of oil or natural gas.


Safety Information:

Carbon dioxide, carbon oxide sulfite, hydrogen sulfite and sulfur dioxide should all be cautious