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Methanol, which is the simplest type of alcohol, is known by its chemical formula CH3OH. Methanol produces many species of bacteria from the anaerobic activity, resulting in a small amount of methanol vapor entering the atmosphere and, after several days, is converted into oxygen by oxygen and oxidized by light from the sun to water and carbon dioxide. Of course, in the methanol burning process, this happens in terms of the materials, but much faster. Meanwhile, burning methanol is a fad and we have to be careful not to burn it with a flame.  

2CH3OH + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 4H2O 


In 1923, German chemist Pierre Mathias produced methanol from synthesis gas (a blend of CO and H2 derived from coke). In this process, zinc chromate was used as a catalyst, and the reaction was carried out in hard conditions such as a pressure of 300-300 atm and temperature of about 400 degrees Celsius. In the modern methanol production process, catalysts are used that operate at lower pressures and have more efficient performance. Today, synthesis gas is not expected to produce methanol, as is the case with coal, but it is produced from the reaction of methane in natural gases under the gentle pressure of 10-20 atmospheres and temperatures of 850 ° C by steam and near nickel catalysts. CO and H2, reacted by the catalytic effect of a mixture of copper and zinc and aluminum oxide, producing methanol. This catalyst was first used by ICI in 1966. The reaction is carried out at a pressure of 50-100 atm and a temperature of 250 ° C.  

Another method of methanol production is the carbon dioxide reacts with additional hydrogen that produces methanol and water. 


Methanol is one of the three most important chemical industries in the world and many materials are derived from it. Also, due to the predictable shortage of energy resources in the future, direct use of methanol as clean fuel or in the production of hydrogen fuel cells is very much considered.  

Chemical formula Methanol: CH3OH 



Other names Methanol: Methyl alcohol, Methyl alcohol, Wood alcohol 



Physical Properties: 

Methanol name 

Other names of wood alcohol, methyl alcohol 

Chemical formula CH3OH 

The molecular weight is 32.04gr / miL 

Boiling point 64.7 ° C 

Freezing point 97.8 ° C 

The density is 0.78gr / cm3 at 25 ° C  



Methanol is used as one of the strategic products in the production of many final products such as solvents, paints, plastics, and anti-icing. The diversification of methanol derivatives and its use in various industries has raised this product as a strategic commodity, and the fluctuation of its price affects many manufacturing industries. Most of the produced methanol in the world is for the production of formaldehyde, acetic acid, and MTBE.  

It is used as an antifreeze, solvent, and fuel. Methanol is also used for ethanol counteraction, this is done in order to induce ethanol not to be produced for industrial use (in Islamic countries for religious matters and in other countries To exempt from tax on the sale of doping materials, other materials such as pyridine and turbinate are also used.  

Methanol is used finely as fuel in engines with an internal combustion system. Methanol from wood and other organic compounds is called organic methanol or bio-alcohol, which is a renewable fuel source and can replace crude derivatives. However, 100% bio-alcohol cannot be used in diesel engines without changing the engine. Methanol is used as a solvent, antifreeze, and in the preparation of other chemical compounds. 

40% of methanol is used for the production of formaldehyde, which is also used in the manufacture of plastics, plywood, paint, and explosives. To change the nature of industrial ethanol and prevent it from being used as a beverage, it adds some methanol to it. Dimethyl ether is a methanol derivative used as a propellant instead of CFCs in astringent spray nozzles.  
Production of key and socket and various industrial adhesives is another methanol application. It also produces formaldehyde (formalin) for home use and the production of various resins. In the production of all types of kitchen utensils and equipment, photographic cameras, and production of methyl methacrylate for the production of various types of laminates and varnish …  
It is also used in the production of acetic acid and its use as a final product or for the use of all types of cellulose acetate for a variety of fibers and fabrics for special applications.